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Empirical moisture functions are commonly used in earth system models (ESMs) to account for the effects of moisture on C turnover rate in soils 13 , 14 , . These functions are often statistically fitted using datasets from specific field sites, resulting in significant uncertainty when they are applied to other sites or expanded to regional and global scales . Therefore, more general mechanistic models that incorporate underlying physicochemical and biological processes are needed to reduce the uncertainty in predicting CO 2 flux from soils , . Process-based models encapsulating effective diffusion of substrate and O 2 , as well as microbial physiology and enzymatic kinetics have been developed to simulate and predict soil CO 2 flux 17 , 18 , 19 , . Pore-scale models based on microbial behaviors have also been established to mechanistically examine organic C decomposition within soil aggregates , and were upscaled to simulate CO 2 flux at soil profile scales , . These mechanistic models described the HR–moisture relationship well for specific soils ,, , but their applications to projecting the response of soil HR rates to moisture change for soils in general are strongly restrained, mainly due to the lack of quantitative relationships between model parameters and soil properties ,, .

Recently, Yan et al. developed a microscale model to simulate the HR–moisture relationship. This model incorporated the primary physicochemical and biological processes controlling soil HR, and generated HR–moisture relationships in agreement with measurements for a heterogeneous soil core, elucidating how microscale heterogeneity of soil characteristics affects the relationships. However, such microscale modeling is computationally expensive and requires data on fine-scale soil properties, preventing its applications in large-scale modeling of soil C decomposition.

The objectives of this paper are to extend the work of Yan et al. by developing a macroscopic moisture function, here termed f m , that incorporates the underlying microscale processes controlling soil HR (Fig.), and to establish the quantitative relationship between parameters of f m and measurable soil properties to allow for the model’s applications to different soils across spatial scales. First, f m was derived based on the primary physicochemical and biological processes controlling soil HR (see Methods section). Then, f m was tested using simulation results obtained by a microscale model modified from the previous Yan et al.’s model (see Methods section). Furthermore, f m was evaluated and calibrated using published incubation data from a wide range of soil types. Lastly, f m was compared with laboratory and field measurements, as well as empirical models to assess its applicability and accuracy.

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Prestigious Competitive External Awards

OVPR has created an abbreviated list of some of the most prestigious and competitive external awards for eligible faculty members.

Please note that this list is neither exclusive nor exhaustive. Every effort will be made to maintain current and accurate information; however, the awarding agency’s posted information remains the final authority. If interested in applying to any of the listed awards, contact Lauren Sisko at Womens Damara Thrill Mocassins Black Clarks gblVvx8S9T

A. M. Turing Award - November

The Association for Computing Machinery’s most prestigious technical award (sometimes referred to as the “Nobel Prize of Computing”) is given for major contributions of lasting importance to computing. Recipients are invited to give the annual A.M. Turing Award Lecture. The award is also accompanied by a cash prize of $250,000, which in recent years has been underwritten by the Intel Corporation and Google, Inc.

Deadline: A. M. Turing Award

Bellagio Creative Arts Fellows - Invitation

The Rockefeller Foundation Bellagio Center’s mission is to promote innovation and identify impact-oriented solutions to critical global problems. The Bellagio Creative Arts Fellows is a high profile program, recognizing visual artists whose work is inspired by global or social issues and demonstrates exceptional originality. The Fellows receive a cash award and undertake a residency of two months at the Center. They also benefit from interactions with a stimulating community of scholars, writers, policymakers, and other artists who share dinners and occasional presentations. The combination of an extended stay, a generous stipend, private work space, and a unique group of fellow residents makes a Creative Arts Fellowship at the Bellagio Center a remarkable opportunity.

Nominations: Rockefeller Foundation’s Bellagio Creative Arts Fellows

Core Fulbright Scholar Program - August

The core Fulbright Scholar Program sends 800 U.S. faculty and professionals abroad each year. Grantees lecture and conduct research in a wide variety of academic and professional fields.

Eligibility: Core Fulbright Scholar Program

Dreyfus Prize in the Chemical Sciences - March

The Dreyfus Prize in the Chemical Sciences is awarded to an individual in a selected area of chemistry to recognize exceptional and original research that has advanced the field in a major way. The prize is awarded biennially and consists of a monetary award of $250,000, a medal, and a citation.


“It was much more racially and ethnically diverse, but it was also very socioeconomically diverse,” said McIntosh, who is black. “That’s one of the things that I learned going to Hunter. I thought all of the kids were wealthy and that was not true.”

But at least as far back at 1997, faculty members have been devising ways to boost diversity at the school. In a report from that year, a committee on cultural diversity at Hunter College High School recommended a full review of the school’s admissions policies, investigating whether the school could eliminate the admissions testing fee, and developing an anti-discrimination statement.

Several years later, Glenn Kissack, then a math teacher at the school, participated in another review of admissions. After months of studying the small number of “feeder schools” that often produce Hunter students and looking into the expensive test prep available for the exam, the committee suggested potentially reserving more seats for poor students and selecting students based on more than just a single test score.

The committee submitted the report, and months went by with no word from the Hunter administration, Kissack said.

“We could have done something else with our time,” Kissack said. “It gathered dust and didn’t matter.”

Hunter officials would not specifically address most of the recommendations in the reports, but said that the school has been engaged in many discussions over the years about improving diversity. Hunter has implemented many recommendations over the years, they said, including creating a Dean of Diversity position in 2002 and raising private funds for student outreach efforts.

The conflict came to a head in 2010 when the high school faculty selected Justin Hudson, one of the school’s few black students, to address his class at graduation. Hudson tackled the school’s demographics head-on in his speech.

“If you truly believe that the demographics of Hunter represent the distribution of intelligence in this city,” he said, according to an UN KARELY HAIL Clarks 1dChDtb4
, “then you must believe that the Upper West Side, Bayside, and Flushing are intrinsically more intelligent than the South Bronx, Bedford-Stuyvesant, and Washington Heights. And I refuse to accept that.”

Kevin Park was a junior at Hunter College high school in 2010, when he joined in the standing ovation for Hudson’s speech. He remembers that there were more students named “Kevin” in his grade than there were black students, and felt Hunter lacked faculty and classes that represented Asian students like himself.

After the speech, Park and some classmates created a skit about what it was like to be a black student at Hunter. It depicted assuming college acceptances came easier to black students and how being the only black student in a class can deter speaking up in class, he said.

“That sparked a discussion for a while,” Park said, “but it didn’t necessarily translate into concrete steps or policies.”

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